Solutions Engine

Hydrate Formation

Resembling ice but even more dense, hydrates are solids that form when free water and natural gas inside a pipeline combine at high pressure and low temperature. When hydrates build up into a plug, it can abruptly restrict pipeline flow, sometimes blocking it all together. In addition to affecting flow efficiency, hydrates can increase pipeline pressures, and can damage pipelines and components.

For Offshore Pipeline operators, TDW provides a variety of pigging and pipeline isolation solutions that help prevent hydrate formation and safely remove hydrate plugs in order to:

  • Restore optimum operating levels and integrity.
  • Maximize flow efficiency for improved profitability.
  • Improve operating capacity and throughput.
  • Avoid production shutdowns.
  • Avoid costly maintenance, including equipment repair and replacement.

 

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In order to prevent hydrates from forming, TDW provides Offshore Pipeline operators with pigging services to remove, displace, and dry fluids from the pipeline. Pigging tools are also used to remove hydrate plugs by delivering freeze point reduction chemicals. 

Pigs for liquids displacement and removal:

  • OptionAll™ batching pig Designed for cleaning, line filling and dewatering, batch separation, and liquid removal.
  • VANTAGE® V batching pig Used for batching, displacing, and cleaning.
  • X-Pig® multi-purpose utility tool  Flexible and versatile all-urethane pig that can negotiate tight pipeline turns. Appropriate for cleaning, batching, and displacement operations.
  • VANTAGE® + pig – Can be used for batching and displacement. Flexible in tight bend pipelines and can traverse a 20 percent reduction in interior pipe diameter.
  • UNISPHERE™ pig – Heavy-duty inflatable sphere that removes liquid hydrocarbons and water from pipelines and piping systems.
  • BiDirectionAll pig Designed to run in either direction. Can be used for air or water displacement or for cleaning when equipped with optional brushes
  • X-Pig® multi-purpose utility tool Flexible and versatile all-urethane pig that can negotiate tight pipeline turns. Appropriate for cleaning, batching, and displacement operations.
  • VANTAGE® + pig – Can be used for batching and displacement. Flexible in tight bend pipelines and can traverse a 20 percent reduction in interior pipe diameter. 

Pigs for line drying:

  • REDSKIN™ foam pig Useful in multiple applications, including pipeline water evacuation and drying.

Pigs for hydrate removal:

  • OptionAll™ cleaning pig Effective for cleaning, maintenance, batching, and displacement. Can be customized with attachments appropriate for clearing pipeline solids, including discs, cups, magnets, brushes, and blades.
  • VANTAGE® V cleaning pig – A multi-use pig that can be equipped with brushes to remove hard, crust-like deposits, urethane blades for removing gummy deposits, scraper discs to clean both hard and soft deposits, and magnet kits to remove ferrous material.
  • PitBoss™ cleaning pig – Designed to remove soft to medium-hard deposits from internal pits.
  • FJR/JRN cleaning pig – Equipped with wire brushes and urethane cups to remove contaminants and deposits from pipelines.
  • WCK cleaning pig – Built to remove pipeline contaminants and deposits, with an outlet port at the pig’s front end to prevent loosened material from piling up. Available in a dual diameter model for cleaning multiple sizes of pipe in one run.

Technical assistance is available from TDW subject matter experts for special circumstances or if the path to a solution requires consultation.