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Axial Planar or Crack-like Defects

Seam welded pipelines often contain mill defects in the seam that can lead to integrity issues, especially when combined with certain conditions such as pipe pressure cycles and low toughness material.

In the Liquids Transmission market, TDW offers a variety of solutions to detect, evaluate, and help mitigate these axial planar and crack-like defects. TDW services enable pipeline owners and operators to:

  • Detect hook cracks, lack of fusion, and crack-like defects.
  • Detect surface-breaking laminations.
  • Prioritize repairs.
  • Avoid pipeline shutdown while removing defects.
  • Keep lines running safely and efficiently, in compliance with company and regulatory standards.



Through advanced inline inspection (ILI) technology to detect and characterize axial planar and crack-like defects, TDW helps Liquids Transmission operators optimize the number of inspections and unnecessary excavationssaving time while lowering operational risks and costs.

  • Multiple Dataset (MDS) platform – Combines multiple technologies to generate comprehensive, critical information in a single tool run. To detect axial planar or crack-like defects, MDS utilizes SpirALL® magnetic flux leakage (SMFL) and leverages axial magnetic flux leakage (MFL) to improve characterization.
  • SpirALL® Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) – Using a unique sensor/magnetizer configuration, guided ultrasonic (sound) waves are transmitted into the pipe wall through direct contact, allowing EMAT to inspect natural gas and liquids pipelines. EMAT detects axial planar or crack-like defects that are below the detectable limits of SMFL.
  • XYZ mapping (XYZ) – Supplies highly accurate location information for axial planar or crack-like defects by pairing global positioning system (GPS) coordinates with inertial mapping.


TDW provides Liquids Transmission operators non-destructive in-ditch assessment to detect and size axial planar and crack-like anomalies in the pipe wall, including inside welds, seams, near mechanical damage, and in high-stress areas.

  • Phased array – An advanced ultrasonic inspection used to detect and size planar anomalies such as hook cracks, lack of fusion, etc., this evaluation allows for permanent documentation of acquired data for anomaly growth monitoring.
  • Conventional shear wave ultrasound – This technology detects and sizes planar anomalies that are perpendicular to the pipe wall.
  • Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) – A combination of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) testing and visual inspection, this evaluation checks exposed pipe for surface anomalies such as hook cracks and lack of fusion.


In the Liquids Transmission market, where pipeline shutdown often is not an option, TDW offers safe and efficient hot tapping and plugging (HT&P) solutions for a wide array of pipeline defects and maintenance challenges, from dents to corrosion to valve failure.

The HT&P process incorporates a high pressure pipeline fitting, valve, tapping machine, and isolation equipment – all working together to provide a safe and proven isolation solution. Once the area of pipeline that needs work has been safely isolated and evacuated, the line modification can be performed.

TDW isolation technology plays a critical role in this process and, combined with a temporary bypass, allows work to be performed without the need to stop product flow. The TDW STOPPLE® Train isolation system, for example, uses double block and bleed technology to help increase efficiency and safety during pipeline modification. This approach to line isolation, which only requires a single pipeline tap, reduces costs associated with fittings, valves, welding, and inspection services. The bleed port affixed on the line ensures that any product that bypasses the first seal is contained and evacuated through the bleed port, which helps operators better protect people and the environment.

Whether operators purchase equipment to perform their own HT&P jobs or turn to TDW to execute the service for them, they can rely on the company’s broad line of equipment and consumables. TDW application engineers are recognized industry experts, ready to assist operators through each project phase – from start to finish.